St. Luke's Church St Luke's Church, more commonly known by locals as the bombed-out church, is a former Anglican parish church in Liverpool. It stands on the corner of Berry Street and Leece Street, at the top of Bold Street. The church was built between 1811 and 1832, and was designed by John Foster, Sr. and John Foster, Jr., father and son who were successive surveyors for the municipal Corporation of Liverpool. In addition to being a parish church, it was also intended to be used as a venue for ceremonial worship by the Corporation and as a concert hall. The church was badly damaged by bombs during the Liverpool Blitz in 1941 and has been a roofless shell ever since, giving rise to its nickname. It now stands as a memorial to those who died in the war, and has also been hired as a venue for exhibitions and events. The church and its surrounding walls, gates, and railings are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as designated Grade II* listed buildings. St. John's Gardens St John's Gardens stand in a former area of heathland known as The Great Heath, which continued to exist until the middle of the 18th century. As Liverpool grew, the land was built on, and towards the end of the 19th century, it had been completely developed. The land sloped upwards to the east of the developing city and was exposed to the winds, making it a suitable site for windmills and for public lines to dry washing. In 1749 the city's first General Infirmary was built on the site, followed by the Seaman's Hospital in 1752, a dispensary in 1778, and a lunatic asylum in 1789. Industry also came to the site; in addition to windmills, there were rope works, potteries, a marble yard, and a row of lime kilns. From 1767 the land towards the top of the slope had been the town cemetery, and in 1784 a church dedicated to Saint John the Baptist was built in the middle of the cemetery. By 1854 the cemetery was full, and the church was demolished in 1898. Meanwhile, the other buildings in the area had been demolished, the industries closed, and St George's Hall had been built, opening in 1854. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was decided to landscape the former cemetery. The remains of most of the bodies were removed and buried elsewhere. The site was redeveloped and opened in 1904 as "St John's Ornamental and Memorial Gardens". The gardens were designed by the corporation surveyor Thomas Shelmerdine. In addition to the creation of flower beds, statues and memorials were erected in the gardens. Lord Street Lord Street is one of the main streets in central Liverpool that forms the city's main shopping district. The street is relatively short at less than 300 metres in length, it joins onto Church Street to the east and James Street alongside Derby Square and the Queen Elizabeth II Law Courts. The majority of land to the south of Lord Street is occupied by the Liverpool One complex, whilst the likes of Cavern Walks are located on the north side of the street. Liverpool Olympia The Liverpool Olympia was built in 1905 For Moss Empires Ltd by architect Frank Matcham as a purpose-built indoor circus and variety theatre. The theatre was a response to the enormous success of Thomas Barrasford's Royal Hippodrome Theatre (4,000 capacity, built 1902, demolished 1984) which stood a very short distance away; the Olympia never managed to meet the success of the Hippodrome, and never managed a profit. It is one of very few of its kind left in the country. Performing animals would appear in the auditorium by being lifted from the basement where they lived. Evidence of the lift mechanism and living areas for elephants and lions can still be found under the theatre. The roof space still holds pulley and wheel mechanisms used by trapeze artists (including the famous Henderson family). The ornate interior still reflects the building's past with elephants, lions set into Indian wall Panelling. The auditorium is one of the largest in Liverpool; in its heyday, it could accommodate 3,750 people in the stalls and on 3 balconies. The unusual proscenium stage was at the same level as the stalls, with an orchestra riser against the back wall. The stage had a 15-metre (49 ft) wide Proscenium, was 12 metres (39 ft) deep, and had a height of 21 metres (69 ft). The Olympia was designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building in 1975. Liverpool Cathedral This postcard shows an artist's impression of an unbuilt design for Liverpool Cathedral. Liverpool Cathedral is the Cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Liverpool, built on St James's Mount in Liverpool, and the seat of the Bishop of Liverpool. It may be referred to as the Cathedral Church of Christ in Liverpool (as recorded in the Document of Consecration) or the Cathedral Church of the Risen Christ, Liverpool, being dedicated to Christ 'in especial remembrance of His most glorious Resurrection'. Liverpool Cathedral is the largest cathedral and religious building in Britain, and the eighth-largest church in the world. The cathedral is based on a design by Giles Gilbert Scott and was constructed between 1904 and 1978. The total external length of the building, including the Lady Chapel (dedicated to the Blessed Virgin), is 207 yards (189 m) making it the longest cathedral in the world; its internal length is 160 yards (150 m). In terms of overall volume, Liverpool Cathedral ranks as the fifth-largest cathedral in the world and contests with the incomplete Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City for the title of largest Anglican church building. With a height of 331 feet (101 m) it is also one of the world's tallest non-spired church buildings and the third-tallest structure in the city of Liverpool. The cathedral is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building. The Anglican cathedral is one of two cathedrals in the city. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral of Liverpool is situated approximately half a mile to the north. The cathedrals are linked by Hope Street, which takes its name from William Hope, a local merchant whose house stood on the site now occupied by the Philharmonic Hall, and was named long before either cathedral was built. Lime Street Lime Street was created as a street in 1790. Its most famous feature is Lime Street railway station. It is part of the William Brown Street conservation area. The street was named for lime kilns owned by William Harvey, a local businessman. When the street was laid out in 1790 it was outside the city limits, but by 1804 the lime kilns were causing problems at a nearby infirmary. The doctors complained about the smell, and so the kilns were moved away, but the street name remained unchanged. With the arrival of the railway line in 1836, the street moved from a marginal to a central location in the city, a position that confirmed by the creation of St George's Hall, on the side of the street opposite the railway station, in 1854. Wellington's Column, a monument to the Duke of Wellington was built to mark one end of the street, at the corner with William Brown Street. The modern street is part of the A5038 road. The Lime Street name ends at the crossroads marked by the Adelphi Hotel, though, as Renshaw Street, the road continues directly uphill to St Luke's Church. The Futurist Cinema operated on Lime Street from 1912, until the cinema's closure in 1982. The building was demolished in 2016. The Empire Theatre opened on Lime Street in 1925, and was the second theatre to be built on the site. The first theatre had opened in 1866, and was demolished in 1924. The theatre has the largest two-tier auditorium in Britain. Lewis's The first Lewis's was opened in 1856 in Liverpool by entrepreneur David Lewis, as a men's and boys' clothing store, mostly manufacturing his own stock. In 1864, Lewis's branched out into women's clothing. In the 1870s, the store expanded and added departments, including shoes in 1874, and tobacco in 1879. Also in 1879, Lewis's opened one of the world's first 'Christmas grottoes' in Lewis's Bon Marché, Church Street, Liverpool. It was named 'Christmas Fairyland'. His motto was Friends of the People, and he intended the shopping experience to be inclusive. The first Lewis's outside Liverpool opened in nearby Manchester in 1877. Another store was opened, at the suggestion of Joseph Chamberlain, on the new Corporation Street in Birmingham in 1885. The Manchester store included a full-scale ballroom on the fifth floor, which was also used for exhibitions. Buying offices were also located on the fifth floor until a takeover by Liverpool-based competitor Owen Owen. A fourth store opened in Sheffield in 1884 but proved unprofitable and closed in 1888. Exchange Flags This postcard shows Exchange Flags as it appeared at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries - the Nelson Monument can be seen towards the right of the image. The current buildings sit on the same site as two previous exchanges in Liverpool. Construction of the current exchange Flags began with the main building, which was completed in 1939. The construction of Walker House was interrupted by the war. The inclusion of the reinforced bunker to house the command centre for the Battle of the Atlantic meant that Walker House wasn't finished until 1941. The bunker was closed on 15 August 1945 after the end of the war but was re-opened as the Western Approaches Museum. Horton House was not completed until 1955 and is named after Admiral Sir Max Horton who was commander-in-chief of the Western Approaches during the war. Dale Street Dale Street is in the Commercial Centre conservation area. The street together with Castle Street, Old Hall Street, Victoria Street and Water Street are the main commercial streets and occupy an area of the medieval town of Liverpool. It contains many Grade II listed buildings. Alois Hitler Jr, the half brother of Adolf Hitler, ran a restaurant there. Bridget Hitler, the wife of Alois, maintained that Adolf lived with them in Liverpool from 1912 to 1913 while he was on the run for dodging the draft in his native Austria-Hungary. Liverpool Town Hall Liverpool Town Hall stands in High Street at its junction with Dale Street, Castle Street, and Water Street. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, and described in the list as "one of the finest surviving 18th-century town halls". The authors of the Buildings of England series refer to its "magnificent scale", and consider it to be "probably the grandest …suite of civic rooms in the country", and "an outstanding and complete example of late Georgian decoration". The town hall was built between 1749 and 1754 to a design by John Wood the Elder replacing an earlier town hall nearby. An extension to the north designed by James Wyatt was added in 1785. Following a fire in 1795 the hall was largely rebuilt and a dome designed by Wyatt was built. Minor alterations have subsequently been made. The streets surrounding its site have altered since its initiation, notably when viewed from Castle Street, the south-side, it appears as off-centre. This is because Water Street which ran to the junction with Dale Street, the west-east axis, was continuous and built up across the junction so that the town hall was not visible originally from that aspect. The structures were removed 150 years after this to expose the building from this position. Bunney's Department Store Bunney's Ltd was a department store on the corner of Whitechapel and Church Street. In this postcard, you can see the building that was Compton's Hotel, Now Marks & Spencer. The Bunney family founded the store and in 1964, Mr Walter Bunney died. His obituary said: DEATH OF MR. BUNNEY The death occurred yesterday at Oddacre, Well Lane, Heswall. of Mr. Walter Bunney, a former director of Bunney's Ltd., Liverpool. He was 82. His family gave its name to an important Liverpool site — Bunney's Corner — at the junction of Church Street and Whitechapel, where their long-established store was taken over in 1956 by Greenwoods Ltd., of Bradford. Mr. Bunney leaves a widow. Briardale Road, Mossley Hill 11 October 1946 - HONOUR FOR POSTMAN'S RESCUER Mr. Joseph Bibby. aged 47, 15 Briardale Road, Mossley Hill, Liverpool Corporation electrician, saw a dog attacking a postman and at once tackled the animal which had the postman by the back of his neck. When help came, the postman had 42 bites and Bibby 12. Bibby will receive the Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane Society's silver medal from the Lord Mayor (Alderman Luke Hogan) at a meeting of the Electricity Committee on Monday. Adelphi Hotel The first hotel on the site was built in 1826 for the hotelier James Radley by the conversion of two 18th-century townhouses. It was built on the site of the former Ranelagh Gardens, the first open space for public recreation in Liverpool. This hotel was replaced by another hotel in 1876 (pictured), which was bought in 1892 by the Midland Railway, being renamed the Midland Adelphi. A feature was a basement set of heated tanks to keep live turtles for turtle soup which was not only served but the basis of a significant business being sent to banquets, etc. around the country and beyond. The railway company replaced it between 1911 and 1914 with the present building, designed by Frank Atkinson. When opened, it was "regarded as the most luxurious hotel outside London". Owing to Liverpool being a major arrival and departure point for ocean liners during the early 20th century, the Adelphi served as the most popular hotel in the city for wealthy passengers before they embarked on their journey to North America. The RMS Titanic was registered in Liverpool (though it never visited the port), and the Sefton Suite is said to be an exact replica of the ill-fated liner's First Class Smoking Lounge. Guests at the hotel have included world leaders, such as Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. Artistes appearing at the Empire Theatre, including Frank Sinatra, Laurel and Hardy, Judy Garland, Bob Dylan, and Roy Rogers have also stayed at the hotel. Rogers made an appearance outside the main entrance with his horse, Trigger. William Brown Street William Brown Street is a road that is remarkable for its concentration of public buildings. It is sometimes referred to as the "Cultural Quarter". Originally known as Shaw's Brow, a coaching road east from the city, it is named after William Brown, a local MP and philanthropist, who in 1860 donated land in the area for the building of a library and museum. This area gives its name as the William Brown Street conservation area. Tower Buildings The first structure on the site had been a sandstone mansion, built in 1256 on the shore of the River Mersey. Its first owner is not known, but by 1360 it was owned by Sir Robert Lathom. By the beginning of the 15th century, it was owned by Sir John Stanley. In 1406 Sir John gained permission from King Henry V to build a fortified house, which was named the Tower of Liverpool. The Stanley family later became the Earls of Derby. By 1737 the house was being leased from the Earl of Derby by Liverpool Corporation. In 1745 part of it was converted into a prison, and the upper rooms were used for civic functions. In 1774 the Corporation bought the building outright. It was demolished in 1819 to allow for the widening of Water Street. The site was used for a row of warehouses until in 1846 the first structure to be known as Tower Buildings was built to a design by Sir James Picton. The present building (pictured) was designed in 1906 by Walter Aubrey Thomas, and its construction was completed in 1910. Thomas also designed the Royal Liver Building. Tower Buildings was one of the first steel-framed buildings in England. In 2006 it was converted into apartments, and into units for commercial and retail use. Liverpool Waterfront By the 1890s, the George's Dock, where the Pier Head now is, was essentially redundant. Built in 1771, it was the third dock built in Liverpool, and was too small and too shallow in depth for the commercial ships of the late 19th century. Most of the site was owned by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, set up by Parliament in 1857; a small part of the site still was still held by the Corporation of the City of Liverpool. The board and the corporation had differing priorities, and the former were not inclined to forgo any commercial advantage for the benefit of the latter. In January 1896, the two bodies began discussions, with the Corporation's team headed by Frederick, Lord Derby (who was then the city's Lord Mayor), and the Board's representatives led by Robert Gladstone, a member of the Liverpool family of which W.E. Gladstone was the best-known. The Corporation sought to persuade the Board to accept its offer to buy the site, reserving a portion of it for new Board offices. After two years of negotiation, this was agreed upon, and Parliamentary authority was obtained for the deal. The Corporation paid £277,399 for the site, from which the Board reserved about 13,500 square yards for its own building. The board pressed ahead with its new headquarters and announced a competition, restricted to local architects, to be adjudicated by Alfred Waterhouse. Despite some protests in national architectural journals about the exclusion of architects from beyond Liverpool, the local firm of Briggs, Wolstenholme, Hobbs and Thornley was appointed. A neo-baroque design was approved, with a central dome added at the last minute before the final plans were adopted in time for the start of building work in March 1903. The building was opened in the summer of 1907. When it acquired the site, the corporation had been confident of finding tenants for the two remaining plots suitable for large-scale buildings, but no such prospective tenants came forward, and it was decided to offer the freehold of the sites for sale. However, at an auction of the sites in 1905 there were no bidders. The following year, the Royal Liver Friendly Society made an approach through Walter Aubrey Thomas, a local architect, successfully offering considerably less for a site than the corporation had hoped for: £70,000 instead of £95,000. Gladstone and the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board expressed consternation at the height of the Royal Liver Society's proposed new headquarters, sometimes described as "England's first skyscraper", but after much debate the corporation approved the plans. The last of the three Pier Head sites between the Liver Building and the Docks and Harbour Board offices was for some time intended to be developed on behalf of the corporation, partly to replace a nearby public baths and partly as offices for the city's new tram network. This scheme fell through, and in the early years of the 20th century, a combined public baths and customs house was proposed. After several years that scheme, too, came to nothing, and in 1913 the Cunard shipping line announced its intention to build a new headquarters in Liverpool. The Cunard Building was built of reinforced concrete, clad in Portland Stone, in a style intended to recall grand Italian palaces, described by the architectural historian Peter De Figueiredo as "a match for its more ostentatious neighbours in expressive power but greatly superior in refinement of detail and proportion." St. Peter's Church, Church Street St Peter's Church was the Anglican Pro-cathedral and Parish church of Liverpool. It was erected in 1700, consecrated on 29 June 1704 and demolished in 1922. It was located on Church Street and its location is now marked by a bronze Maltese cross on Church Street. The building was designed by John Moffat and was erected to the South of Church Street. The architecture of the pro-cathedral was criticised for being inconsistent; each of the doorways to the church were of different designs. The church had a single tower which measured 108 feet (33m) in height, the upper part of which was octagonal in shape and contained a peal of ten bells. The church contained an oak altar which was greatly admired. At the Eastern end was a stained glass window representing Saint Peter and at the Western end was a large organ. The environment surrounding the church was criticised for being muddy; Church Street was not paved until 1760 and was the site of a weekly cattle market. Overhead Railway The Liverpool Overhead Railway (known locally as the Dockers' Umbrella or Ovee) was an overhead railway in Liverpool which operated along the Liverpool Docks and opened in 1893 with lightweight electric multiple units. The railway had a number of world firsts: it was the first electric elevated railway, the first to use automatic signalling, electric colour light signals and electric multiple units, and was home to one of the first passenger escalators at a railway station. It was the second oldest electric metro in the world, being preceded by the 1890 City and South London Railway. Originally spanning five miles (8 km) from Alexandra Dock to Herculaneum Dock, the railway was extended at both ends over the years of operation, as far south as Dingle and north to Seaforth & Litherland. A number of stations opened and closed during the railway's operation owing to relative popularity and damage, including air bombing during World War II. At its peak, almost 20 million people used the railway every year. Being a local railway, it was not nationalised in 1948. In 1955, a report into the structure of the many viaducts showed major repairs were needed that the company could not afford. The railway closed at the end of 1956 and despite public protests, the structures were dismantled in the following year.